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The Flag of Nepal: A Unique Symbol of the Himalayas

Only the Non-Quadrilateral flag in the world -Flag of Nepal

Some Facts of Nepal Flag

Shape: Triangular            

Nicknames: Chandra Ra Surya, Triangular Flag, Jungi Nishan

First Adopted by: Prithivi Narayan Shah

Officially Adopted: 16 December 1962

Colors: Crimson, Blue and White

Symbols: Sun and Moon

Almost all the recognized countries in the world have their own flag representing the identity of the nation, its people, geography and cultures. Nepal, a landlocked gem between two giant countries, holds a unique non-quadrilateral flag acting as both the state flag and the civil flag of a sovereign country. Thus, Nepal is only the country in the world having a double-pennon flag with three basic colors: Red, White and Blue.

Although there is no enough evidence about the origination of Nepal’s flag, we believe it to be in use since ancient times. Almost all the South Asian states had a triangular-shaped flag in ancient times. Later, all the countries brought changes in their flags following the European rectangular or square versions. Nepal is only the country to maintain the ancient version of its double-pennant shape.

However, there were significant changes in the flag of Nepal before it was officially adopted as the national flag of Nepal. The constitutional government ratified the current flag as the national flag of Nepal on 16 December 1962. Before 1962, the flag was a little different as the sun and the moon on the flag had human faces.

What do the colors symbolize in the flag of Nepal?

The flag of Nepal has three basic colors: Crimson, Blue and White. Crimson red; also the color of rhododendron, the national flower of Nepal; is mainly used on the largest portion whereas the border is dark blue. The symbols ‘Sun’ and ‘Moon’ are white which is also the color of purity and innocence. The representation of these three different colors in the flag is amazing to discover. The red color which is also the national color of Nepal symbolizes the bravery of the Nepali people. 

The blue color used in the border of the flag represents space (sky) or the mystery. Despite having a small territory, Nepal is rich in geographical, cultural and spiritual mysteries. It is so diverse land sharing a few common attributes with every region in the world. Thus, the blue color at the border symbolizes that Nepal is the country having limitless fame in the world. In addition, the blue color also represents the peace and harmony maintained by diverse castes and creeds in this land for thousands of years.

The sun and the moon on the flag are painted white. The white color is associated with purity, virginity, sincerity and perfection. That is to say, Nepal is one of the perfect virgin lands in the world full of sincere and hardworking people. The symbols like ‘sun’ and ‘moon’ used in the flag depict the eternal existence of the country. Nepal and Nepali will exist as long as the Sun and the Moon remain in the universe.

What do the Sun and the Moon represent in Nepal’s Flag?

On the other hand, the crescent moon at the upper triangle of the flag with eight visible rays symbolizes the demeanor and spiritual purity of the Nepali people. The moon is also the representation of the cool weather in the Himalayas. The lower triangle of the flag consists of the sun with twelve rays symbolizing Terai, the high-temperature plain of the southern part. The inclusion of the moon and the sun in the flag is probably the indication that Nepal shares all kinds of climates from the equatorial to the Polar Regions.

The flag of Nepal is also considered as the most mathematical flag in the world as the Constitution of Nepal 2015 shares some geometric steps to draw the exact shape and size of the Nepal flag. It is basically the combination of two triangles. The upper triangle is quite smaller than the lower one. For instance, click the link to learn how to draw the perfect flag of Nepal mathematically.  

How to Draw/Make Nepal Flag

The constitution of Nepal 2015 has prescribed 24 important methods to prepare the national flag of Nepal in article 8 and schedule 1. The methods mentioned in the constitution are briefly described below. Please go through all the steps slowly and give it a try to draw the flag of Nepal!

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Method of Making the National Flag of Nepal

(1) Firstly, draw a line AB of the required length from left to right on the lower portion of crimson cloth.
(2) From A draw a line AC perpendicular to AB making AC equal to AB plus one third AB. From AC, mark off D making the line AD equal to line AB and then Join BD.
(3) From BD mark off E making BE equal to AB.
(4) Touching E draw a line FG, starting from the point F on line AC parallel to AB to the right-hand-side. Mark off FG equal to AB.
(5) Join CG.

(B) Method of making the Moon


(6) From AB mark off AH making AH equal to one-fourth of line AB and starting from H, draw a line HI parallel to line AC touching line CG at the point I.
(7) Bisect CF at J and then draw a line JK parallel to AB touching CG at point K.
(8) Let L be the point where lines JK and HI cut one another.
(9) Join JG.
(10) Let M be the point where line JG and HI cut one another.
(11) With the center M and with a distance shortest from M to BD mark off N on the lower portion of line HI.


(12) Touching M and starting from O, a point on AC, draw a line from left to right parallel to AB.
(13) With center L and radius LN draw a semi-circle on the lower portion and let P and Q be the points where it touches the line OM respectively.
(14) With the center M and radius MQ draw a semi-circle on the lower portion touching P and Q.
(15) With center N and radius NM draw an arc touching PNQ at R and S after that join RS. Let T be the point where RS and HI cut one another.


(16) With center T and radius TS draw a semi-circle on the upper portion of PNQ touching at two points.
(17) With center T and radius TM draw an arc on the upper portion of PNQ touching at two points.
(18) Eight equal and similar triangles of the moon are to be made in the space lying inside the semi-circle of No (16) and outside the arc of No (17) of his Schedule.

Method of Making the Sun

(19) Bisect line AF at U, and draw a line UV parallel to AB line touching line BE at V.
(20) With center W, the point where HI and UN cut one another and radius MN draw a circle.
(21)  Draw a circle with center W and then draw radius LN.
(22) Twelve equal and similar triangles of the sun are to be made in the space enclosed by the circle of No (20) and No (21) with the two apexes of two triangles touching line HI.

Method of Making the Border


(23) The width of the border will be equal to the width of TN. This will be of deep blue color and will be provided on all the sides of the flag. However, on the given angles of the flag, the external angles will be equal to the internal angles.
(24) Finally, the above-mentioned border will be provided if the flag is to be used with a rope. On the other hand, if it is to be hoisted on a pole, the hole on the border on the side AC can be extended according to requirements.

Explanation: Above all the lines HI, RS, FE, ED, JG, OQ, JK and UV are imaginary. Similarly, the external and internal circles of the sun and the other arcs except the crescent moon are imaginary. These are not shown on the flag.

Source: Constitution of Nepal, Preliminary Draft. Kathmandu: 2015